Atrophaneura dixoni (Grose-Smith, 1900)

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The fore wings: Male. Length forewing/wingspan 62-67/102-114 mm. Upperside and underside forewing black with inconspicuous pale stripes on both sides of veins. H 

The hind wings:  Hindwing outer margin slghtly crenulate; upperside black, half of the wing, including the strongly enlarged anal area, pale brown; underside black with narrow red patch and sometimes red submarginal crescents. 

The body:  

Sex differences: Female. Length forewing/wingspan 73-75/117-120 mm. Upperside and underside forewing dark brown with strongly developed pale stripes on both sides of veins, suggesting that the pale color is the ground color instead of the dark brown color. Hindwing outer margin crenulate, but not developing into tails; upperside brown, darker towards outer margin, indistinct reddish submarginal crescents and band from space 1c to 5; underside black with pink to reddish submarginal crescents and narrow band from hinf margin to vein 6.

Variation and infraspecific taxa: Little variation known.

Similar species: Unmistakable species.

Habitat: Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
This species inhabits both primary and secondary rainforest. Males are most commonly seen on hilltops late in the afternoon, where they defend territories from perches a few metres above the ground. Both sexes frequent flowers, usually high in the forest canopy. Adults are extremely rapid flyers. Larvae feed on the fruits and flower buds of Gardenia , Randia (Rubiaceae) and other species, where they may cause significant damage.
(IUCN 2020)

Population: This species appears very local, but is occasionally fairly common.
Range: This butterfly species is distributed widely in South East Asia, where it ranges from northern India, through Indo-China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Okinawa (Japan), peninsular Thailand/Malaysia to Sulawesi and possibly Borneo (see Taxonomic Notes). Although the species has been recorded from Thailand , Monastyrskii and Devyatkin (2003) did not include the species in their checklist of the butterflies of Viet Nam . Nonetheless, the species has a very large extent of occurrence and, as inhabitants of primary and secondary forest which is still fairly abundant across its distribution, the area of occupancy is also quite large.
(IUCN 2020)

Occurrence and observation maps

Map of Life

Host plants (as foodsource for larvae (L) or adults (A)) :


  • IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2020).