The fore wings: Male. Length forewing/wingspan 52-55/76-88 mm. Forewing upperside without or with faint palestripes on both sides of veins in apical half; underside xxxxx?? H
The hind wings: Hindwing outer margin slightly crenulate, large anal fold that varies from greyish black to beige or whitish; upperside black; underside xxxxx?
Sex differences: Female. Length forewing/wingspan 55-67/88-107 mm. Forewing more rounded than in male; upperside black, greyish or whitish on both sides of veins of varying intensity and extent, strongest towards apex; underside XXXXX??. Hindwing much more strongly crenulate, anal area not enlarged; upperside black, more or less greyish, whitish or bluish along the veins; underside XXXXX??
Variation and infraspecific taxa: Varies geographically in size, internsity and extent of pale markings; nine subspecies have been distinguished.
Similar species: Not easily confused with other species.
Habitat: Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist LowlandPopulation: This species is widespread but often local, found only in well-wooded localities (Collins and Morris 1985). It is extinct in Singapore, however it is thought to widely populate Malaysia and Indonesia (Collins and Morris 1985). Between 2009 and 2010, sixteen individuals of this species were found in Mount Slamet, Java (Widhiono 2015); three on Mount Sago, West Sumatra in 2013 (Rusman et al. 2016); and two in Lambir Hills National Park in Sarawak between 1999 and 2004 (Itioka et al. 2009). There is no additional quantitative population information for this species.Range: This species is distributed around southern Thailand (in the Petchaburi province near Hua Hin 30 years ago, and in the Surat Thani province in Khao Pho Ta Hill; Kimura et al. 2011), Malaysia, and Indonesia, including the island of Borneo (and likely Brunei) (Collins and Morris 1985). In terms of subspecific distribution, subspecies of the erebus subpecies group occur on the Malay Peninsula (southern Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia; subspecies erebus ), Sumatra (North: subspecies henricus; Western Central: tungensis ; West and South: solokanus ), Nias (subspecies petronius ) and the Banyak Islands (subspecies hirokae ); the smedleyi subspecies group on the Mentawei Islands (subspecies smedley ) and Batu Islands (subspecies mirifica ); the nox subspecies group on Java (subspecies nox ) and Bali (subspecies nyx ); and the noctis subspecies group on Borneo (West: subspecies noctus ; North: noctula ; South: banjermasina ) and Singkep Island (subspecies miekoae ) (Hirata and Miyagawa 2006, J. Moonen pers. comm. February 2019). Its estimated extent of occurrence exceeds 4 million km2.
This species is found in well-wooded habitats (Collins and Morris 1985). In their 2016 study on Mount Sago, Rusman et al. found that two specimens of this species were found in rubber forest, while one was collected in secondary forest. It was also found in both secondary forest and plantation forest on Mount Slamet in Central Java, with fewer occurrences in tourist developments (Widhiono 2015). This suggests that this species can survive in either of these habitats. The host plant of this species is Thottea corymbosa (Corbet and Pendlebury 1992), a spreading shrub that is found at elevations up to 1,050 m (Fern 2018). This plant is collected for medicinal uses, for example to treat toothache, as well as to be used for washing clothes (Fern 2018).
Occurrence and observation mapsMap of Life
Host plants (as foodsource for larvae (L) or adults (A)) :
- Collins, N.M. and Morris, M.G. 1985. Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World. The IUCN Red Data Book. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
- Corbet, A. S., and Pendlebury, H. M. 1992. The butterflies of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur.
- Corbet, A.S. and Pendlebury, H.M. 1992. The butterflies of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur.
- Fern, K. 2018. Aristolochia philippinensis. Available at: http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Aristolochia+philippinensis. (Accessed: 24th September 2018).
- Hirata, M. and Miyagawa, T. 2006. Revisional study on the subspecies of Atrophaneura nox (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae),with descriptions of two new subspecies. The Lepidopterological Society of Japan 57(3): 187-201.
- Itioka, T., Yamamoto, T., Tzuchiya, T., Okubo, T., Yago, M., Seki, Y., Ohshima, Y., Katsuyama, R., Chiba, H. and Yata, O. 2009. Butterflies collected in and around Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia in Borneo. Contributions from the Biological Laboratory, Kyoto University 30(1): 25-68.
- IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 December 2020).
- Kimura, Y., Aoki, T., Yamaguchi, S., Uemura, Y. and Saito, T. 2011. The Butterflies of Thailand based on Yunosuke Kimura Collection. Mokuyosha, Tokyo.
- Rusman, R., Atmowidi, T. and Peggie, D. 2016. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) of Mount Sago, West Sumatra: Diversity and Flower Preference. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences 23: 132-137.
- Widhiono, I. 2015. Diversity of butterflies in four different forest types in Mount Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 16(2): 196-204.