The fore wings:
The hind wings:
Variation and infraspecific taxa:
Habitat: Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland,Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist MontanePopulation: The exact population of this species is unknown, but only a few specimens had been recorded by 1982 and it is only found in a very restricted area; it is therefore likely that the population is small (Tsukada and Nishiyama 1982). As a result of its restricted range, the species was assessed as Vulnerable in a status assessment in 1996 (Gimenez Dixon 1996). There are no recent population data available for this species.Range: This species has a very restricted range in the Ijen mountains of eastern Java (Collins and Morris 1985). Its estimated extent of occurrence, based on the area of the Ijen mountains, is estimated between 1,000 and 2,000 km2, although it may be much smaller, given that only few locality data exist for this species.
The foodplant(s) of this species are not known. It is likely that its hostplant belongs to the family Aristolochiaceae. The Ijen mountain range is volcanic, with the highest point on the Raung volcano, at an elevation of 3,332 m (Collins and Morris 1985). There are frequent eruptions of volcanoes within the range, for example the eruption of Mount Merapi in May 2018 (Damiana 2018). The Ijen mountain range is the least populated part of Java and large areas of forest (that mainly cover the mountains) remained intact and undeveloped when the species was assessed in 1985 (Collins and Morris 1985). There are also many high plateaus, lakes and craters in the mountain range (Collins and Morris 1985). This species is likely to occur at a medium to high altitude as this is where the most suitable, undeveloped land is found. There are some forested tracts here too which is where the species is likely to be found.
Occurrence and observation mapsMap of Life
Host plants (as foodsource for larvae (L) or adults (A)) :
- Collins, N.M. and Morris, M.G. 1985. Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World. The IUCN Red Data Book. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
- Damiana, J. 2018. Indonesia evacuates residents, shuts airport after Java volcano erupts. Reuters.
- Gimenez Dixon, M. 1996. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1996: e.T2377A9435834.
- IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 December 2020).
- Tsukada, E. and Nishiyama, Y. 1982. Butterflies of the South East Asian islands. Plapac Co. Ltd., Tokyo.