The fore wings: Male. Length forewing/wingspan 60-64/95-100 mm. Forewing upperside black; underside xxxxx?? H
The hind wings: Hindwing outer margin slightly crenulate; upperside black, enlarged anal area white; underside black with conspicuous red from space 1c to 5.
Sex differences: Female. Length forewing/wingspan 73-76/114-120mm. Forewing upperside and underside black to dark brown with well developed pale brown to whitish areas along the black veins, the pale color covering up to half of the wing. Hindwing slightly crenulate; upperside black with inconspicuous reddish patch; underside black with well-developed red patch.
Variation and infraspecific taxa: Few specimens are known of this endemic species of Sulawesi, but still two subspecies have been distinguished, differing mainly in the extent of the red patch on the hindwing underside.
Similar species: Not easily confused with other species.
Habitat: Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist LowlandPopulation: This species appears very local, but is occasionally fairly common.Range: This butterfly species is distributed widely in South East Asia, where it ranges from northern India, through Indo-China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Okinawa (Japan), peninsular Thailand/Malaysia to Sulawesi and possibly Borneo (see Taxonomic Notes). Although the species has been recorded from Thailand , Monastyrskii and Devyatkin (2003) did not include the species in their checklist of the butterflies of Viet Nam . Nonetheless, the species has a very large extent of occurrence and, as inhabitants of primary and secondary forest which is still fairly abundant across its distribution, the area of occupancy is also quite large.
This species inhabits both primary and secondary rainforest. Males are most commonly seen on hilltops late in the afternoon, where they defend territories from perches a few metres above the ground. Both sexes frequent flowers, usually high in the forest canopy. Adults are extremely rapid flyers. Larvae feed on the fruits and flower buds of Gardenia , Randia (Rubiaceae) and other species, where they may cause significant damage.
Occurrence and observation mapsMap of Life
Host plants (as foodsource for larvae (L) or adults (A)) :
- IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 December 2020).